Associate Professor of Sociology at the City University of New York, Queens College

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U.S. State Balance of Payments, 2018

Data on inter-state transfers via federal taxes and spending for 2018.
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The US Federal Balance of Payments data set is a compilation of state-level public finance, demographic, geographic, and other data, covering the year 2018. This document outlines the variables contained in this set, and the sources from which they were drawn.

Download the data set in comma-separated values format here

The scripts and raw data used to consolidate this data are available for download on this project’s archive on the Open Science Framework.1 The script used to generate these data can be downloaded on Github.

Data & Sources

This section describes the data set and the sources used to build it.

Federal Balance-of-Payment Data

The set is centered on a state-disaggregated federal revenue and expenditure set maintained by the New York Comptroller’s Office.2 Its associated variables are described in the table below:

Namesvar.descr
bop.totalState’s federal balance-of-payments
bop.pcPer capita balance-of-payments
tax.paid.totalTaxes paid, total
tax.paid.pcTaxes paid, per capita
tax.paid.pincTaxes paid: Personal, total
tax.paid.pinc.pcTaxes paid: Personal, per capita
tax.paid.socinsTaxes paid: Social Insurance, per capita
tax.paid.socins.pcTaxes paid: Social Insurance, total
tax.paid.corpTaxes paid: Corporate, total
tax.paid.corp.pcTaxes paid, Corporate, per capita
tax.paid.exciseTaxes paid: Excise, total
tax.paid.excise.pcTaxes paid, Excise, per capita
tax.paid.estateTaxes paid, Estate, total
tax.paid.estate.pcTaxes paid: Estate, per capita
exp.totalExpenditures, total
exp.pcExpenditures, per capita
exp.dirpmt.totalExpenditures: Direct payments, total
exp.dirpmt.pcExpenditures: Direct payments, per capita
exp.dirpmt.socsec.totExpenditures: Direct payments: Social Security, total
exp.dirpmt.socsec.pcExpenditures: Direct payments: Social Security, per capita
exp.dirpmt.medicare.totExpenditures: Direct payments: Medicare, total
exp.dirpmt.medicare.pcExpenditures: Direct payments: Medicare, per capita
exp.dirpmt.vetben.totExpenditures: Direct payments: Veterans’ Benefits, total
exp.dirpmt.vetben.pcExpenditures: Direct payments: veterans’ benefits, per capita
exp.dirpmt.fedempl.totExpenditures: Direct payments: federal employment, total
exp.dirpmt.fedempl.pcExpenditures: Direct payments: federal employment, per capita
exp.dirpmt.snap.totExpenditures: Direct payments: SNAP, total
exp.dirpmt.snap.pcExpenditures: Direct payments: SNAP, per capita
exp.dirpmt.eitc.totExpenditures: Direct payments: EITC, total
exp.dirpmt.eitc.pcExpenditures: Direct payments: EITC, per capita
exp.dirpmt.ssi.totExpenditures: Direct payments: SSI, total
exp.dirpmt.ssi.pcExpenditures: Direct payments: SSIR, per capita
exp.grants.totalExpenditures: Grants, total
exp.grants.pcExpenditures: Grants, per capita
exp.grants.medicaid.totExpenditures: Grants: Medicaid, total
exp.grants.medicaid.pcExpenditures: Grants: Medicaid, per capita
exp.grants.hiways.totExpenditures: Grants: Highways, total
exp.grants.hiways.pcExpenditures: Grants: Highways, per capita
exp.grants.housing.totExpenditures: Grants: Housing, total
exp.grants.housing.pcExpenditures: Grants: Housing, per capita
exp.grants.chldnut.totExpenditures: Grants: Child Nutrition, total
exp.grants.chldnut.pcExpenditures: Grants: Child Nutrition, per capita
exp.grants.tanf.totExpenditures: Grants: TANF, total
exp.grants.tanf.pcExpenditures: Grants: TANF, per capita
exp.grants.esea.totExpenditures: Grants: ESEA, total
exp.grants.esea.pcExpenditures: Grants: ESEA, per capita
exp.grants.sped.totExpenditures: Grants: Special Ed, total
exp.grants.sped.pcExpenditures: Grants, Special Ed, per capita
exp.grants.chip.totExpenditures: Grants: CHIP, total
exp.grants.chip.pcExpenditures: Grants: CHIP, per capita
exp.grants.transit.totExpenditures: Grants: Transit, total
exp.grants.transit.pcExpenditures: Grants: Transit, per capita
exp.proc.totalExpenditures: Procurement, total
exp.proc.pcExpenditures: Procurement, per capita
exp.proc.mil.totExpenditures: Procurement: Military, total
exp.proc.mil.pcExpenditures: Procurement: Military, per capita
exp.proc.nonmil.totExpenditures: Procurement: Non-Military, total
exp.proc.nonmil.pcExpenditures: Procurement: non-military, per capita
exp.wages.totalExpenditures: Wages, Total
exp.wages.pcExpenditures: Wages, per capita
exp.wages.mil.totExpenditures: Wages: military, total
exp.wages.mil.pcExpenditures; Wages: military, per capita
exp.wages.civ.totExpenditures: Wages, civilian, total
exp.wages.civ.pcExpenditures: Wages, civilian, per capita

State Population & Density Data

We use a Census distribution for state-level population, population growth, and density data.3 To examine the role that large city populations, we used Census data to score the percentage of a state’s population residing in a Combined Statistical Area with at least 2 million people. These variables are all described below:

VariableExplanation
populationTotal population
pop.growthPopulation Growth (%)
pop.densityState Population Density
metro.popMetropolitan Population
metro.pop.pctMetro Population (%)

State GDP Data

State GDP data was drawn from the Bureau of Economic Analysis.4 The set includes data on overall GDP, and government value-added. It also breaks down government value-added to federal civilian, state/local civilian, and military.

VariablesDescription
gdpState GDP
gov.vaTotal Government Value-Added
gov.va.fedcivGovt Value;Added: Federal Civilian
gov.va.milGovt Value-Added: Military
gov.va.slGovt Value-Added: State & Local
gdp.pcGDP per capita

Census Area

R’s base package includes data on state’s geographic size and the Census divisions to which states pertain.

VariablesDescription
state.areaState area in mi^2
state.divisionCensus-defined Division
state.regionCensus-defined Region

Poverty

The set includes two poverty metrics, drown from the U.S Department of Agriculture’s Economic Research Service5

VariableExplanation
pov.pctPoverty Rate
pov.u18.pctUnder-18 Poverty Rate

Local Prices

Local price data is drawn from the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis.6

VariableExplanations
costlivingState cost of living

Median Household Incomes

Median household income data comes from the U.S. Census Bureau.7

VariableExplanation
med.incomeMedian Household Income

Citing this Set

Please cite this set as:

Cohen, Joseph N. 2020. “State Balance of Payment Data, 2018.” Data set. <osf.io/eh2d9>


  1. Cohen, Joseph N. 2020. “State Balance of Payment Data, 2018.” Retrieved <osf.io/eh2d9>.
  2. New York State Comptroller’s Office (2020) New York’s Balance of Payments in the Federal Budget, January https://www.osc.state.ny.us/files/reports/budget/pdf/federal-budget-fiscal-year-2018.pdf.
  3. U.S. Census Bureau “Table 14. State Population – Rank, Percent Change, and Population Density” Data set downloaded November 1, 2020 from https://www2.census.gov/library/publications/2011/compendia/statab/131ed/tables/12s0014.xls>
  4. United States Bureau of Economic Analysis (2020) “Regional Data: GDP and Personal Income” Online dataset. Accessed November 11, 2020. https://apps.bea.gov/itable/iTable.cfm?ReqID=70&step=1#reqid=70&step=1&isuri=1
  5. U.S. Department of Agriculture (2020) “Home / Data Products / County-level Data Sets / Poverty” Electronic data set downloaded December 9, 2020 from https://data.ers.usda.gov/reports.aspx?ID=17826
  6. U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (2020) “Regional Data: SARPP Regional Price Parities by State” Electronic data set downloaded December 9, 2020 from https://apps.bea.gov/iTable/iTable.cfm?reqid=70&step=1&isuri=1&acrdn=8#reqid=70&step=1&isuri=1
  7. U.S. Census Bureau (2020) “Table H-8: Median Household Income by State: 1984 to 2019” Historical Income Tables: Households

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